Most public universities are no more affordable for low-income students, writes Carrie Warick, leaving few financially safe choices for applicants.
When deciding on colleges, students are commonly told to incorporate a “safety school” to make certain they truly are accepted to a minumum of one institution. For low-income students, such as those who receive advising from college access programs like members of the National College Access Network, they even need a different variety of a safety school: a financial someone to which they aren’t just accepted but also are reasonably sure they could afford.
As parents’ concerns about college costs surpass even their worries about having enough money for retirement, whether a reasonable college option exists — particularly for low-income students — is a question that is crucial. To answer it, NCAN designed an affordability measure to see whether a student that is low-income reasonably be prepared to successfully piece together every one of the possible sources for funding a four-year degree in today’s public higher education system.
Why, specifically, a degree that is four-year? Because it’s the surest path into the middle income for low-income students and students of color. And why examine public institutions in particular? Since they were founded to serve all learning students within their state. Their missions depend on ensuring access. At least, low-income students need just one affordable college option.
But unfortunately, only 25 percent of public, four-year residential institutions are affordable when it comes to average first-time, full-time Pell Grant ninjaessays recipient who is working in a minimum-wage job. This percentage plummets to approximately 10 percent when examining public flagship institutions.
This measure of affordability is detailed in NCAN’s new paper that is white “Shutting Low-Income Students Out of Public Four-Year advanced schooling.” It weighs the price of attendance at an institution — plus $300 to cover emergency expenses — against students’ average total grant aid from federal, state and institutional resources; the institution’s average federal loan amount; the typical Pell Grant recipient’s expected family contribution; and an approximation of students’ earnings from part-time work whilst in school and summer work that is full-time. Combining most of these aid sources — which requires an adept navigation associated with the aid that is financial — still does not allow students to pay for 412 of this 551 (75 percent) residential public four-year institutions when you look at the U.S. and Puerto Rico.
This was not necessarily the case, and NCAN members are seeing the impact of the shift on the go.
“once I started in this work with 2004, I could confidently say that then paying for college wasn’t a barrier to their success,” Traci Kirtley, chief program officer at College Possible, told NCAN if we did our jobs right and our students did their work as well. “That’s no longer true today. Regardless if students try everything right, many in 2018 are finding that they still can’t manage to pursue a college degree.”
This really is a significant equity issue for our country. It’s also a timely one, as policy makers question whether college is “for everyone” and promote programs that are shorter-term outcomes are usually less beneficial. High-income students are already a lot more than four times prone to complete a degree that is bachelor’s are low-income students — 60 percent versus 14 percent, respectively. Additionally, low-income students are almost twice as likely as his or her high-income peers to have a postsecondary certificate or associate degree.
Sub-baccalaureate degrees and credentials are valuable, however the concentration of low-income students within these programs is surely an indication that students would not have equitable choices when picking their career paths. As the concept of postsecondary education expands, it is important that low-income students — like their higher-income peers — wthhold the choice to choose their postsecondary and professional paths based on skills and interests, not finances alone.
This reality of college affordability must not be acceptable to either our federal or state policy makers. It should serve as a wake-up call that policies meant to boost our nation’s higher education system must address all pathways, thereby helping low-income students pursue a four-year degree should they desire one.
Solutions to college affordability must address multifaceted issues: the complexity of this system, affordability during the access point to all pathways — particularly the four-year degree — together with debt burden of these who can afford to enroll in the first place. Policy makers and advocates must increase their concentrate on a cohesive intend to address college affordability. Without a holistic approach, the share of low-income students completing four-year degrees will stay inequitable as they continue to lack one or more viable, affordable college option.